INTRODUCTION. There is now a high level of acceptance amongst biodeterioration biologists and technologists in the paints and biocides industries , that. Several paints of varying chemistry have been in use for domestic and industrial purposes. The painted Biodeterioration of domestic and public buildings. PDF | This paper presents a review of the biodeterioration of architectural paint films by bacteria, fungi and algae, concentrating on external films. references .

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Recent advances in biodeterioration and biodegradation. Although qualitative differences were observed, essentially all the fungal species isolated from both frescoes grew quite well on calcium caseinate, to a lesser extent on masonite, and to an even lesser extent on animal glue.

Gallo F Biological factors in deterioration of paper. The chlorophytes Pseudococcomyxa simples and Pseudopleurococcus printzii were always present but at much lower cellular concentrations. These models will allow paknts to establish, under controlled conditions, which species colonize a given substrate, how the microbial flora will change on changing of the substrates supports, pigments, binders, glues, etc.

Finally, one must evaluate how aging, which may be simulated in the laboratory, may bring about variations in the chemical structures of many components of works of art from the support polymers to the different binders and glues and how these chemical variations may influence the colonization by different microbial taxa. For instance, Saiz-Jimenez and Samson 47 have analyzed the microbial flora of painnts large fresco painted in the late s in an old Spanish monastery.

Using biodeterioartion technique of dermatologic mycology, they determined that direct microscopic examination of the microbial structures adhering to transparent cellulose tape pressed on the painted surface revealed the presence of fungal elements, such as hyphae, typical of most filamentous fungi.

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Microbiodeterioration of library materials. Biodeterioratio 15th-century murals in the Ognissanti church in Florence, restored in after the flood ofwere cleaned and treated biodeterioratoin nystatin in the late s but, inshowed the appearance of greenish-brown—to—black spots on the painted surface Further, the biochemical reactions catalyzed by the different microbial species may vary with the different makeup of the substrate and also when external factors, including age, alter the chemical structures of some of the components of the substrate.


Bacteria and their role in the deterioration of frescoes of the complex of monasteries from northern Moldavia. Thus, one should take into consideration how the microbial flora colonizing an art work varies according to the chemical composition of such a work. Indagine sperimentale sul ruolo dei cianobatteri e delle microalghe nel deterioramento di moumenti ed affreschi; pp.

Ravikumar 1Shwetha S. Inoue M, Koyano M. In addition, the project group has published results of a number of collaborative studies in which the growth and survival of a large number of micro-organisms were evaluated in a range of different polymer emulsions. Dry-Film Algal Testing A similar process has been followed for the laboratory evaluation of paints intended to be resistant to algal growth.

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For both types of paintings the spectrum of compounds that may be present is further increased by those that are added at later times during retouching, restoration, or relining or when a fresco is detached and transferred to a canvas or a board. For a more comprehensive treatment of the role of microorganisms in the degradation of our cultural heritage, the reader should refer to the reviews already published 261213202930364655 However, it will not determine if the DNA derives from living or dead microorganisms and, more importantly, it will not allow us to distinguish between microorganisms responsible for the observed damage one could call them the parasites and those that do not contribute to it the saprophytes.

Fungus contamination of Florence art—masterpieces before and after the disaster. This minireview focuses on the colonization of art works by microorganisms and its effects. However, species identification and determination of the microbial load were possible only when cultures on different media were made with small fragments of the painted surface or cotton swabs brushed on such a surface. Over 90 bacterial strains were isolated, all of which were heterotrophs and most of which were in the genera BacillusArthrobacterMicrococcusSarcinaand Pseudomonas Biodegradation and Biodeterioration in Latin America.

Cloete TE and de Bruyn EE The dominant sulphide producing bacteria, isolated from industrial cooling-water systems.

According to the researchers, colonization by actinomycetes begins as soon as the sites are opened and the frescoes are excavated, becoming quite evident only 2 biodetdrioration after excavation and exposure to air. In this review a brief description of the paints and their compositions, paint properties, paint biodetoriation and biodegradation are described.


In this type of experiment only biodeterioratiion viable counts of the fungi Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum increased in the first period of incubation. The knowledge of paints and their composition is essential to understand their fate in the natural environmental settings. References Alexander M Biodegradation of chemicals of environmental concern. Although historical records and, more significantly, chemical analyses may indicate with sufficient accuracy the pigments that have been used in older art biodeterioratino, it is less easy to determine which components were used for sizing the ground, emulsifying the pigments, protecting the finished painted surfaces, etc.

Krumbein W E, Lange C.

Biodegradation of Paints: a Current Status | Ravikumar | Indian Journal of Science and Technology

O’Neill T B Succession and interrelationships of microorganisms on painted surfaces. The analyses were essentially limited to the fungal population and demonstrated that clear differences existed between the numbers of species isolated from art works and those isolated from the environment in which the art work was located. Albertano P, Grilli Caiola M. Of the isolates, 46 were identified as members of 19 different species of Streptomyces and 5 were identified as members of the genus Nocardia.

Fungal contamination of oil paintings in Japan. In addition, cyanobacteria and algae can provide an bioxeterioration source of organic material on which heterotrophic bacteria and fungi may thrive, thus causing further aesthetic and structural damage to the paintings.

Investigations on the presence and role of bacteria in deteriorated zones of Cozia Biodeeterioration painting.

Study of biodeterioration of the Ajanta wall paintings. After these pioneering papers, Gargani 14 and Tiano and Gargani 57 published a detailed investigation of the microbial floras of art works, mostly frescoes. Indian Society of Education and Environment No: The biodeterioration of stone: Alexander M Biodegradation of chemicals of environmental concern.