When we talk today of the “torture memos,” most of us think about the later memoranda, like the infamous “Bybee Memo” of August 1, Another Tortured Memo from Jay Bybee. Nine years after he left his post as Director of the Office of Legal Counsel (OLC) in the George W. Bush. The Bybee Memo Memorandum for Alberto R. Gonzales We conclude that for an act to constitute torture as defined in Section , it must inflict pain that is .

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By barring both types of acts, the European Convention implicitly distinguishes between them and further suggests that torture is a grave act beyond cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment.

Part six of the memo is titled “Defenses” and concludes that “under the current circumstances, necessity or self-defense may justify interrogation methods that might violate Section A.

In re Neagle, U. See United States v. Moreover, this distinction was “adopted in order to emphasize that torture is at the extreme end of cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or punishment. Mejo its analysis, the court appeared to fold into cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment two distinct categories.

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Nonetheless, leading scholarly commentators believe that interrogation of such individuals using methods that might violate Section A would be justified under the doctrine of self-defense, because the combatant by aiding and promoting the terrorist plot “has culpably caused the situation where someone might get hurt.

He [Continued on Page 49] was denied sleep and bhbee threatened him with dealt. Bi Zhu Lin v.

Although the court did totrure specify the predicate acts that caused the prolonged mental harm, it is plain that both the threat of severe physical pain and the threat of imminent death were present and persistent. Moreover, these attacks are part of a violent campaign against the Bybre States that is believed to include an unsuccessful attempt to destroy an airliner in December ; a suicide bombing attack in Yemen on the U.

In such a state, the individual suffers from significant memory impairment, such as the inability to retain any new information or recall information about things previously of interest to the individual. Pursuant to his authorities as Commander-in-Chief, the President in October,ordered the Armed Forces to attack al Qaeda personnel and assets in Afghanistan, and the Taliban bhbee that harbored them.

He was shackled in a stooped position for 44 months and he developed eye infections as a result of the blindfolds. Fifth, the defendant cannot rely upon the necessity defense if a third alternative is open and known to him that will cause less harm. In the absence of a catchall provision, the most natural reading of the predicate acts listed in Section 2 A – D is that Congress intended it to be exhaustive.


While the Inter-American Convention to Prevent and Punish Torture does not require signatories to criminalize cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment, the textual differences in the definition of torture are so great that it would be difficult to draw from that jurisprudence anything more than the general trend of its agreement with the Ireland decision. The FBI uses the information to open an assessment of the activists and to put the grand jury witness under physical surveillance as a prelude to pressuring him to become an FBI informant.

Torture Memos – Wikipedia

Since the initial revelation of these documents, other communications related to the use of torture to coerce or intimidate detainees during the Bush administration have been divulged.

Threads collapsed expanded unthreaded. Bicic, like Mehinovic, was subjected to the game of Russian roulette. Although there is no federal statute that generally establishes necessity or other justifications as defenses to federal criminal laws, the Supreme Court has recognized the defense. See Hearing, at 10 prepared statement of Hon. Memos sent in from Jay Bybee of the Office of Legal Counsel, Department of Justice, to the Counsel to the President and to the CIA presented a series of arguments which would provide the basis for approval of torture, inhuman and degrading treatment against detainees in the ‘War on Terror’.

I could not imagine any federal court in America agreeing that the entire CIA program could be conducted and it would not violate the American Constitution. Gonzales on a number of occasions his view on this extreme legal position, which would fly in the face of settled separation of powers jurisprudence. The August 1,memorandum reasoned that “[a]ny effort by Congress to regulate the interrogation of battlefield combatants would violate the Constitution’s sole vesting of the Commander-in-Chief authority in the President.

Standards of Conduct for Interrogation under 18 U. They then stripped him and gave him only a robe to wear and left him bleeding, dizzy, and in severe pain. Comments on Your Paper on the Geneva Convention.

A memo on torture to John Yoo

Section defines the offense of torture as: Physical pain amounting to torture must be equivalent to intensity to the pain accompanying serious physical injury, such as organ failure, impairment of bodily function, or even death. Vuckovic personally beat Subasic two times, punching him and kicking him with his military boots. In response to the widespread criticism of the Bybee memo, the Department of Justice issued a new memo on December 30,stating that it superseded the Bybee memo in its entirety, in which the analysis directly addressing the definition of torture was ameliorated.


These sections appeared only in the Btbee version of the Foreign Affairs Authorization Act, and the conference bill adopted them without amendment. We likewise think that the onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder behaviors would rise to this level. Mehinovic had “anxiety, flashbacks, and nightmares and has difficulty sleeping. To be sure, this beating caused Subasic substantial pain. For example, in Ratzlaf v. Unfortunately, he fails to mention any of the negative consequences of the policies.

Over the years, Jay and Dianna have sought the bybde professional advice and treatments available for Scott, and have done all else they could as loving parents to help Scott cope with his struggles.

Whether such a defense will be upheld depends on the specific context within which the interrogation decision is made. Gonzales, Counsel to the President and William J. Nonetheless, courts appear to look at the entire coarse of conduct rather than any one act, making it somewhat akin to a totality-of-the-circumstances analysis.

Safet Hadzialijagic was subjected to daily beatings with “metal pipes, bats, sticks, and weapons. Law and Judgement Inside the Bush Administration.

It concludes that torture does not include “other acts of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment” because such language is found in a different article than the definition of torture, and because it appears that the convention does not intend to criminalize such action, but instead discourage it.

Because of this approach, it is difficult to take a specific act out of context and conclude that the act in isolation would constitute torture. The New York Times. The understanding of the George H. Second, the TVPA includes the phrase “arising only from or inherent in, or incidental to lawful sanctions”; by contrast, Section refers only to pain or suffering “incidental to lawful sanctions,” Id.

His memos said the 10 earlier opinions “should not be treated as authoritative for any purpose” and further explained that some of the underlying opinions had been withdrawn or superseded and that “caution should be exercised” by the Executive Branch “before relying in other respects” on the other opinions that had not been superseded or withdrawn.