Linux Advanced Routing Tutorial .. [router] ~ # cat /etc/iproute2/rt_tables # # reserved values # local main default 0 unspec. iproute2 is a collection of userspace utilities for controlling and monitoring various aspects of NetEm – Network Emulator · Linux networking commands using iproute2 – Tutorial for configuring IP address, Routing table, Neighbour table etc. IPROUTE2 Utility Suite Howto This docvumentation covers the ip utility from IPROUTE2. This utility is This includes all of the utilities in the IPROUTE2 suite.

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Next we will cover what route tables we will want to create. VLANs can be created over bridge, bonding and other interfaces capable of processing ethernet frames too.

The qlen indicates the default transmit queue length of the device measured in packets. It’s included in every distro by default, or at least available from the repos OpenWRT is one of the cases.

Apart from reducing fragmentation in tunnels like in example above, this is also used to increase performance of gigabit ethernet links that support so called “jumbo frames” frames up iproufe2 bytes large. The service tag is the VLAN tag the provider uses to carry client traffic through their network.

Arp is a protocol used to gather information about physical devices accessible through the local network. Study them until you see why.

iproute2 tutorial for ifconfig, arp, route users

Linux kernel implements only handling of data frames, so you can create only unmanaged tunnels with iproute2, with all settings configured manually on both sides. So you can have several identical routes in different tables that will not conflict as we had mentioned above in in the description of “the first” mechanism.


The list of IPv4 and IPv6 addresses follows accompanied by additional attributes such as scope value, flags, and address label. The basic querying follows the general pattern tuttorial the other subcommands: The RX and TX lines summarize receiver and transmitter statistics. When an interface goes down, connected routes associated with it are removed. So let us create two new route tables and then discuss the ramifications of this decision.

So first we should think about what variables we would require in a configuration script.

iproute2 – Wikipedia

You can add new addresses and delete old ones without regard to any ordering. Equalize works only if the appropriate kernel configuration option is chosen or if the kernel is patched. To get statistics about how an interface is communicating, you can query statistics from each interface by passing the -s option to the link subcommand:. In the case where we have a peer address then we test for the presence and insert a default route via our peer address with a somewhat high metric.

If the option is given twice then ip route flush also dumps all deleted routes in the format described in the previous subsection. The ip command most commonly fails for the following reasons: Commands from the “ip link” family perform operations that are common for all interface types, like viewing link information or changing the MTU.

Every namespace is a complete copy of the networking stack with its own interfaces, addresses, routes etc. The first word of each line is the protocol address of the neighbour followed by the device name. OutOfSeq total number of packets dropped because they arrived out of sequence for GRE tunnel with enabled serialization. We can print off the current routing table by typing: If we still have several routes then the first of them is selected.

Introduction It is essential to have an understanding of basic networking tools when administering and troubleshooting Linux servers.


This is actually a preferred use for the ip command in general. The only difference is the default action performed. By default, this should at least list your gateway.

The device must be enabled before this address will show up. We can print off the current routing table by typing:.

IPROUTE2 Utility Suite Documentation

oproute2 The packets that came from the This format of the command allows viewing the routing tables contents and looking at route s as selected by some criteria. Imagine that you are configuring a router that only has two interfaces. Several of these protocol values have a fixed interpretation. Dummy interfaces work pretty much like loopback interfaces, just there can be as many of them as you want. The downside is that you will need to use a multicast routing protocol, typically PIM-SM, to get it to work over routed networks.

This way you can reassign an interface back to default namespace with e. You can run any processes inside a ipoute2, in particular you can run “ip” itself, commands like in iporute2 “ip netns exec foo ip link list” in this section are not a special syntax but simply executing another copy of “ip” in a namespace. Route packets with source addresses from Using CIDR style notation we indicate the number of contiguous ones starting tutoriwl the left in the mask.

Key values dest, tos, preference and table select the route to delete. Note that two of these address spaces overlap thus adding in a degree of complexity. It may contain link, address, and route.